In brain tumor surgery, recognition of tumor boundaries is key. However, intraoperative assessment of tumor boundaries by the neurosurgeon is difficult. Therefore, there is an urgent need for tools that provide the neurosurgeon with pathological information during the operation. We show that third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy provides label-free, real-time images of histopathological quality; increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and rarefaction of neuropil in fresh, unstained human brain tissue could be clearly recognized. We further demonstrate THG images taken with a GRIN objective, as a step toward in situ THG microendoscopy of tumor boundaries. THG imaging is thus a promising tool for optical biopsies.
Kuzmin, N. V., Wesseling, P., Hamer, P. C. D., Noske, D. P., Galgano, G., Mansvelder, H. D., ... Groot, M. L. (2016). Third harmonic generation imaging for fast, label-free pathology of human brain tumors. Biomedical Optics Express, (7), 1889-1904. . https://doi.org/10.1364/BOE.7.001889