To compare the optical properties of the human retina, 3-D volumetric images of the same eye are acquired with two nearly identical optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems at center wavelengths of 845 and 1060nm using optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI). To characterize the contrast of individual tissue layers in the retina at these two wavelengths, the 3-D volumetric data sets are carefully spatially matched. The relative scattering intensities from different layers such as the nerve fiber, photoreceptor, pigment epithelium, and choroid are measured and a quantitative comparison is presented. OCT retinal imaging at 1060nm is found to have a significantly better depth penetration but a reduced contrast between the retinal nerve fiber, the ganglion cell, and the inner plexiform layers compared to the OCT retinal imaging at 845nm. © 2009 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.