Towards a quantitative concession-based classification method of negotiation strategies

Tim Baarslag*, Koen Hindriks, Catholijn Jonker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book / Report / Conference proceedingConference contributionAcademicpeer-review


In order to successfully reach an agreement in a negotiation, both parties rely on each other to make concessions. The willingness to concede also depends in large part on the opponent. A concession by the opponent may be reciprocated, but the negotiation process may also be frustrated if the opponent does not concede at all. This process of concession making is a central theme in many of the classic and current automated negotiation strategies. In this paper, we present a quantitative classification method of negotiation strategies that measures the willingness of an agent to concede against different types of opponents. The method is then applied to classify some well-known negotiating strategies, including the agents of ANAC 2010. It is shown that the technique makes it easy to identify the main characteristics of negotiation agents, and can be used to group negotiation strategies into categories with common negotiation characteristics. We also observe, among other things, that different kinds of opponents call for a different approach in making concessions.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAgents in Principle, Agents in Practice - 14th International Conference, PRIMA 2011, Proceedings
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 28 Nov 2011
Externally publishedYes
Event14th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems, PRIMA 2011 - Wollongong, NSW, Australia
Duration: 16 Nov 201118 Nov 2011

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume7047 LNAI
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference14th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems, PRIMA 2011
CityWollongong, NSW


  • Automated bilateral negotiation
  • Classification
  • Competition
  • Concession
  • Cooperation
  • Negotiation strategy

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