In this review article an overview of methods for the analysis of aqueous samples with capillary gas chromatography is presented. The methods can be classified into two approaches: a direct approach in which water is directly introduced onto the GC column, and an indirect approach in which water is eliminated, i.e., by liquid-liquid extraction or solid-phase extraction, prior to introduction of the analytes onto the GC column. The emphasis is on methods in which sample preparation and GC analysis are combined on-line. An outline of methods for large volume injection is also presented as the use of on-line systems often involves the introduction of large volumes of sample extract. © 1995.