Turtles all the way down: do biological mechanisms for epidemiological observations always matter?

David T.P. Buis*, Jos van Roosmalen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)909-912
Number of pages4
JournalEuropean Journal of Epidemiology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank prof. Y.M. Smulders for critically reading the manuscript and his suggestions.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Biological mechanisms
  • Causal inference
  • Causality
  • Epidemiology
  • Hill's criteria

Cite this