Tomosyn was previously identified as a syntaxin-binding protein that inhibits soluble NSF (n-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein) attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated secretion. We set out to investigate the distribution of tomosyn mRNA in the mammalian brain and found evidence for the presence of two paralogous genes designated tomosyn-1 and -2. In a collection of tomosyn-2 cDNA clones, we observed four splice variants (named xb-, b-, m- and s-tomosyn-2) derived from the skipping of exons 19 and 21. This feature is conserved with tomosyn-1 that encodes three splice variants. To compare the expression pattern of tomosyn-1 and -2, we performed in situ hybridization experiments with gene-specific probes. Both genes were expressed in the nervous system, clearly following distinct spatial and developmental expression patterns. Real-time quantitative PCR experiments indicated that tomosyn-1 expression was up-regulated less than threefold between developmental stages E10 and P12, whereas tomosyn-2 expression increased 31-fold. Not only the transcription level, but also the splice composition of tomosyn-2 mRNA shifted during development. We conclude that two distinct genes drive expression of seven tomosyn isoforms. Their expression patterns support a role in regulating neuronal secretion. All isoforms share conserved WD40 and SNARE domains separated by a hypervariable module, the function of which remains to be clarified.