Two-year effectiveness of a stepped-care depression prevention intervention and predictors of incident depression in primary care patients with diabetes type 2 and/or coronary heart disease and subthreshold depression: data from the Step-Dep cluster randomised controlled trial

Alide Danielle Pols, Marcel C. Adriaanse, Maurits W. van Tulder, Martijn W. Heymans, Judith E. Bosmans, Susan E. van Dijk, Harm W.J. van Marwijk

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticle

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorders (MDD), diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and coronary heart disease (CHD) are leading contributors to the global burden of disease and often co-occur.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the 2-year effectiveness of a stepped-care intervention to prevent MDD compared with usual care and to develop a prediction model for incident depression in patients with DM2 and/or CHD with subthreshold depression.

METHODS: Data of 236 Dutch primary care patients with DM2/CHD with subthreshold depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) score ≥6, no current MDD according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria)) who participated in the Step-Dep trial were used. A PHQ-9 score of ≥10 at minimally one measurement during follow-up (at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months) was used to determine the cumulative incidence of MDD. Potential demographic and psychological predictors were measured at baseline via web-based self-reported questionnaires and evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Model performance was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, Nagelkerke's R2 explained variance and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Bootstrapping techniques were used to internally validate our model.

RESULTS: 192 patients (81%) were available at 2-year follow-up. The cumulative incidence of MDD was 97/192 (51%). There was no statistically significant overall treatment effect over 24 months of the intervention (OR 1.37; 95% CI 0.52 to 3.55). Baseline levels of anxiety, depression, the presence of >3 chronic diseases and stressful life events predicted the incidence of MDD (AUC 0.80, IQR 0.79-0.80; Nagelkerke's R2 0.34, IQR 0.33-0.36).

CONCLUSION: A model with 4 factors predicted depression incidence during 2-year follow-up in patients with DM2/CHD accurately, based on the AUC. The Step-Dep intervention did not influence the incidence of MDD. Future depression prevention programmes should target patients with these 4 predictors present, and aim to reduce both anxiety and depressive symptoms.NTR3715.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere020412
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalBMJ Open
Volume8
Issue number10
Early online date28 Oct 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2018

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Keywords

  • coronary heart disease
  • preventive medicine

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