Predicting and anticipating disturbances in higher level gait is particularly relevant for patients with dementia as higher level gait appears to be closely related to higher level cognitive functioning. A phenomenon that could contribute to the understanding and prediction of disturbances in higher level gait and gait-related motor activity in the various subtypes of dementia is paraphrased as 'last in-first out'. 'Last in-first out' refers to the principle that neural circuits that mature late in development are the most vulnerable to neurodegeneration. The strength of relating symptoms to the 'last in-first out' principle is that a future symptom can be predicted and anticipated in a therapeutic way, even if the disease process has not already started.Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide new strategies for rehabilitation of higher level gait disturbances in dementia based upon the 'last in-first out' principle. These new strategies emerge from five neural networks: the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, the fronto-cerebellar and fronto-striatal connections, and the cingulum. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.