Universality of the Triangular Theory of Love: Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Triangular Love Scale in 25 Countries

Piotr Sorokowski*, Agnieszka Sorokowska, Maciej Karwowski, Agata Groyecka, Toivo Aavik, Grace Akello, Charlotte Alm, Naumana Amjad, Afifa Anjum, Kelly Asao, Chiemezie S. Atama, Derya Atamtürk Duyar, Richard Ayebare, Carlota Batres, Mons Bendixen, Aicha Bensafia, Boris Bizumic, Mahmoud Boussena, David M. Buss, Marina ButovskayaSeda Can, Katarzyna Cantarero, Antonin Carrier, Hakan Çetinkaya, Dominika Chabin, Daniel Conroy-Beam, Ilona Croy, Rosa María Cueto, Marcin Czub, Daria Dronova, Seda Dural, Izzet Duyar, Berna Ertugrul, Agustín Espinosa, Ignacio Estevan, Carla Sofia Esteves, Tomasz Frackowiak, Jorge Contreras Graduño, Farida Guemaz, Tran Ha Thu, Mária Haľamová, Iskra Herak, Marina Horvat, Ivana Hromatko, Chin Ming Hui, Jas Laile Jaafar, Feng Jiang, Konstantinos Kafetsios, Tina Kavcic, Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair, Nicolas Kervyn, Nils C. Köbis, Aleksandra Kostic, Anna Krasnodębska, András Láng, Georgina R. Lennard, Ernesto León, Torun Lindholm, Gulia Lopez, Mohammad Madallh Alhabahba, Alvaro Mailhos, Zoi Manesi, Rocio Martinez, Mario Sainz Martinez, Sarah L. McKerchar, Norbert Meskó, Girishwar Misra, Conal Monaghan, Emanuel C. Mora, Alba Moya-Garófano, Bojan Musil, Jean Carlos Natividade, George Nizharadze, Elisabeth Oberzaucher, Anna Oleszkiewicz, Mohd Sofian Omar Fauzee, Ike E. Onyishi, Baris Özener, Ariela Francesca Pagani, Vilmante Pakalniskiene, Miriam Parise, Bogusław Pawłowski, Farid Pazhoohi, Marija Pejičić, Annette Pisanski, Katarzyna Pisanski, Nejc Plohl, Edna Ponciano, Camelia Popa, Pavol Prokop, Aneta Przepiórka, Truong Quang Lam, Muhammad Rizwan, Joanna Różycka-Tran, Svjetlana Salkičević, Ruta Sargautyte, Ivan Sarmany-Schuller, Susanne Schmehl, Anam Shahid, Rizwana Shaikh, Shivantika Sharad, Franco Simonetti, Meri Tadinac, Truong Thi Khanh Ha, Karina Ugalde González, Christin Melanie Vauclair, Luis Diego Vega, Dwi Ajeng Widarini, Bogdan Wojciszke, Gyesook Yoo, Zainab Fotowwat Zadeh, Marta Zaťková, Maja Zupančič, Robert J. Sternberg

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Abstract

    The Triangular Theory of Love (measured with Sternberg’s Triangular Love Scale–STLS) is a prominent theoretical concept in empirical research on love. To expand the culturally homogeneous body of previous psychometric research regarding the STLS, we conducted a large-scale cross-cultural study with the use of this scale. In total, we examined more than 11,000 respondents, but as a result of applied exclusion criteria, the final analyses were based on a sample of 7332 participants from 25 countries (from all inhabited continents). We tested configural invariance, metric invariance, and scalar invariance, all of which confirmed the cultural universality of the theoretical construct of love analyzed in our study. We also observed that levels of love components differ depending on relationship duration, following the dynamics suggested in the Triangular Theory of Love. Supplementary files with all our data, including results on love intensity across different countries along with STLS versions adapted in a few dozen languages, will further enable more extensive research on the Triangular Theory of Love.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)106-115
    Number of pages10
    JournalJournal of sex research
    Volume58
    Issue number1
    Early online date12 Aug 2020
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2021

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