In the last two decades, traffic Incident Management (IM) has become an advanced new tool to reduce and prevent congestion on the road network, especially in urban areas. IM involves the coordinated interactions of many public and private actors. To support these tasks in an effective way, advanced information systems are becoming increasingly important. This paper offers a broad overview of the principles and practices of IM, with particular reference to the Dutch situation. It aims to provide an empirical analysis of the critical success conditions for effective IM in the Netherlands based on an Internet survey questionnaire administered to stakeholders. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.