Using comprehensive lipid profiling to study effects of PFHxS during different stages of early zebrafish development

Mengmeng Xu*, Jessica Legradi, Pim Leonards

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


PFHxS (Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid) is one of the short-chain perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) which are widely used in many industrial and consumer applications. However, limited information is available on the molecular mechanism of PFHxS toxicity (e.g. lipid metabolism). This study provides in-depth information on the lipid regulation of zebrafish embryos with and without PFHxS exposure. Lipid changes throughout zebrafish development (4 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf)) were closely associated with lipid species and lipid composition (fatty acyl chains). A comprehensive lipid analysis of four different PFHxS exposures (0, 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 μM) at different zebrafish developmental stages (24, 48, 72, and 120 hpf) was performed. Data on exposure concentration, lipids, and developmental stage showed that all PFHxS concentrations dysregulated the lipid metabolism and these were developmental-dependent. The pattern of significantly changed lipids revealed that PFHxS caused effects related to oxidative stress, inflammation, and impaired fatty acid β-oxidation. Oxidative stress and inflammation caused the remodeling of glycerophospholipid (phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)), with increased incorporation of omega-3 PUFA and a decreased incorporation of omega-6 PUFA.

Original languageEnglish
Article number151739
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 20 Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author (Mengmeng Xu) was supported by China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201806320126 ). We also want to acknowledge the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning ( FORMAS ) under grant agreement no. 2012-2148 (Project SUPFES).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors


  • Developmental stages
  • Lipidomics
  • Modes of action
  • PFAS
  • PFHxS
  • Zebrafish embryos


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