Objective: Medical critiquing systems compare clinical actions performed by a physician with a predefined set of actions. In order to provide useful feedback, an important task is to find differences between the actual actions and a set of 'ideal' actions as described by a clinical guideline. In case differences exist, the critiquing system provides insight into the extent to which they are compatible. Methods and material: We propose a computational method for such critiquing, where the ideal actions are given by a formal model of a clinical guideline, and where the actual actions are derived from real world patient data. We employ model checking to investigate whether a part of the actual treatment is consistent with the guideline. Results: We show how critiquing can be cast in terms of temporal logic, and what can be achieved by using model checking. Furthermore, a method is introduced for off-line computing relevant information which can be exploited during critiquing. The method has been applied to a clinical guideline of breast cancer in conjunction with breast cancer patient data. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.