Validation of the ArthroS virtual reality simulator for arthroscopic skills

J. J. Stunt*, G. M.M.J. Kerkhoffs, C. N. van Dijk, G. J.M. Tuijthof

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Purpose: Virtual reality simulator training has become important for acquiring arthroscopic skills. A new simulator for knee arthroscopy ArthroS™ has been developed. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate face and construct validity, executed according to a protocol used previously to validate arthroscopic simulators. Methods: Twenty-seven participants were divided into three groups having different levels of arthroscopic experience. Participants answered questions regarding general information and the outer appearance of the simulator for face validity. Construct validity was assessed with one standardized navigation task. Face validity, educational value and user friendliness were further determined by giving participants three exercises and by asking them to fill out the questionnaire. Results: Construct validity was demonstrated between experts and beginners. Median task times were not significantly different for all repetitions between novices and intermediates, and between intermediates and experts. Median face validity was 8.3 for the outer appearance, 6.5 for the intra-articular joint and 4.7 for surgical instruments. Educational value and user friendliness were perceived as nonsatisfactory, especially because of the lack of tactile feedback. Conclusion: The ArthroS™ demonstrated construct validity between novices and experts, but did not demonstrate full face validity. Future improvements should be mainly focused on the development of tactile feedback. It is necessary that a newly presented simulator is validated to prove it actually contributes to proficiency of skills.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3436-3442
Number of pages7
JournalKnee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Arthroscopic training
  • Simulator
  • Validation


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