What's in a name: Implicit self-esteem and the automatic self

S.L. Koole, A. Dijksterhuis, A. van Knippenberg

    Research output: Contribution to JournalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    This article explores the links between implicit self-esteem and the automatic self (D. L. Paulhus, 1993). Across 4 studies, name letter evaluations were positively biased, confirming that implicit self-esteem is generally positive (A. G. Greenwald & M. R. Banaji, 1995). Study 1 found that this name letter bias was stable over a 4-week period. Study 2 found that positive bias for name letters and positive bias for birth date numbers were correlated and that both biases became inhibited when participants were induced to respond in a deliberative manner. Studies 3-4 found that implicit self-evaluations corresponded with self-reported self-evaluations, but only when participants were evaluating themselves very quickly (Study 3) or under cognitive load (Study 4). Together, these findings support the notion that implicit self-esteem phenomena are driven by self-evaluations that are activated automatically and without conscious self-reflection.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)669-685
    Number of pages16
    JournalJournal of Personality and Social Psychology
    Publication statusPublished - 2001


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