Worldwide vaccination willingness for COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Kimberly R. Nehal, Lieke M. Steendam, Maiza Campos Ponce*, Marinka van der Hoeven, G. Suzanne A. Smit

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to JournalReview articleAcademicpeer-review


Countries across the globe are currently experiencing a third or fourth wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections; therefore, the need for effective vaccination campaigns is higher than ever. However, effectiveness of these campaigns in disease reduction is highly dependent on vaccination uptake and coverage in susceptible populations. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis estimated the vaccination intention and identified determinants of willingness and hesitancy. This study updates the existing body of literature on vaccination willingness, and was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed was searched for publications, selecting only studies published between 20 October 2020 and 1 March 2021, in English, with participants aged >16 years of age. The search identified 411 articles, of which 63 surveys were included that accounted for more than 30 countries worldwide. The global COVID-19 vaccination willingness was estimated at 66.01% [95% CI: 60.76–70.89% I2 = 99.4% [99.3%; 99.4%]; τ2 = 0.83]. The vaccination willingness varied within as well as between countries. Age, gender, education, attitudes and perceptions about vaccines were most frequently observed to be significantly associated with vaccine acceptance or refusal.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1071
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
Issue number10
Early online date24 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • COVID-19
  • Determinants
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Vaccination hesitancy
  • Vaccination willingness
  • Vaccine


Dive into the research topics of 'Worldwide vaccination willingness for COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this